Sailing on the widespread belief across sectors that a good safety culture is paramount for good safety performance in organisations that deal with major hazards, the recently renewed European legislation on railway safety has introduced the concept of safety culture as a feature of good safety management. This requirement will soon be further strengthened in secondary legislation and accompanying guidance and, as a logical consequence, will have to be assessed and regulated in the future. But is it possible to influence the safety culture of an industry duty-holder from outside, in the first place? Who should do it? And how?