Safety regulators may take enforcement action against organisations which breach safety laws. The regulatory function is typically supported by an investigation arm which conducts enquiries into incidents and accidents, although it is increasingly common (for example in Europe) for the national investigating body to become and independent service.
Safety regulators may also provide support for the introduction of new technologies, processes and operating methods.
The degree, structure and organisation of safety regulation varies widely between nations. For example within Great Britain there are separate organisations for development of railway safety standards; regulation of the infrastructure manager and train operators; accident investigation; and enforcement of legislation. Whereas other jurisdictions may combine the functions of regulation and accident investigation within a single organisation.